Historical Timeline of the NWHI

2000 - The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (NOWRAMP) expedition was launched as a multi-agency and institutional partnership that brought together the best field resources (people, equipment and funding) of both the resources trustees (State and Federal) and the academic community.

- President Bill Clinton calls for recommendations on the conservation of the NWHI and issues the Executive Order 13178 that creates the NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve and protects Hawaiian cultural and religious uses.

1997 - Hui Malama I Ka Kupuna O Hawai'i Nei re-inters the remains of seven ancient Hawaiians at Nihoa and Necker

1995 - 2000 - Council contractors complete Review of Coral Reefs around American Flag Pacific Islands and assessment of need and feasibility of establishing a coral reef fishery management plan for the Western Pacific Region

1992 - LORAN (a marine navigation system station on Kure Atoll is closed)

1987 - 1991 - The Council establishes the Pelagic FMP (1987), MWHI Hoomalu Zone bottomfish limited entry program (1989), and Protected species Zone, 50 nm around NWHI, within which longline fishing is prohibited (1991)

1984 - A Bishop Museum Expedition finds 25 additional archeological sites on Nihoa and Necker

1980 -1986 - The council establishes the Precious Coral Fishery Management Plan (1980), Crustaceans FMP (1983), and Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish FMP (1986)

1978 - Following a Governor's Advisory Committee recommendation, NMFS, USFWS, the State of Hawaii, and the University of Hawaii begin a five-year cooperative research program to identify NWHI marine resources

1965 - 1959 -Japanese longliners annually expend up to 2,170 vessel days in the NWHI

1964 - Wilderness Act is passed, prohibiting commercial enterprise within a National Wilderness Preservation System

1946 - 1959 - Nine large commercial vessels fish in the waters of the NWHI

1942 - World War II leads to the development of a US Navy base at Midway Atoll - Japanese fleet is defeated at the Battle of Midway, June 3-6

1941 - Midway is bombed by the Japanese on the same day as Pearl Harbor, marking the beginning World War II.

1925 - Tanager Expedition records travels to a number of islands studying plants, animals and geology. They also find 115 archeological sites that include ancient houses, agriculture and religious sites. Kenneth Emory is a part of this expedition. While on Laysan, they witness the extinction of the Laysan Apapane

1917 - Public officials deny requests to establish a fishing station and cannery at French Frigate Shoals

1909 - President Theodore Roosevelt creates the Hawaiian National Wildlife Refuge, a preserve and breeding ground for native birds, which extends from Pearl and Hermes to Nihoa, and includes Kure.

1908 - The rights to remove "products of whatever nature from the islands" of Laysan and Lisianski are given to Genkichi Yamanouchi, who exports tons of feathers and bird wings

1898 - The U.S. annexes "the Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies" through a joint Resolution of Annexation. Most of the NWHI are incorporated into the U.S.

1894 - Necker Island annexed by the Republic of Hawai'i

1893 - The Hawaiian Kingdom is overthrown

1890 - The Hawaiian Kingdom allows Captain George D. Freeth and Captain Charles N. Spencer to mine guano on Laysan and other Northwestern Hawaiian Islands for 20 years, for a royalty of 50 cents per ton 1886 - Kure is formally annexed o the Hawaiian Kingdom by King Kalaukaua

1885 - Lili'uokalani's travel party arrive on Nihoa

1872 - Captain Dowsett of the whale ship Kamehameha discovers Dowsett Reef, just north of Maro Reef, which was discovered in 1820 by Captain Allen

1859 - The Midway Islands are discovered by Captain N.C. Brooks sailing under the Hawaiian flag. He named it Middlebrooks Islands (after himself), and claims it for the U.S. under the Guano Act of 1856; a law that authorizes Americans to temporarily occupies unclaimed Pacific islands to obtain guano 1857 - Kamehameha IV visits Nihoa and annexes this island as well as the rest of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the Hawaiian Kingdom

1854 - Kamehameha III claims Pearl and Hermes

1828 - Laysan Island "discovered" by Captain Stanikowitch of the Russian ship Moller

1823 - Kure Atoll discovered by Captain Benjamin Morrell, Jr. of the schooner Tartar, who claims Kure to have an abundance of sea turtles and sea elephants

1822 - Ka'ahumanu annexes Nihoa to the Kingdom of Hawai'i - Pearl and Hermes Atoll are accidentally found when the ships Pearl and Hermes run aground there

1820 - Gardner Pinnacles and Maro Reef discovered by Captain Joseph Allen of the brig Maro.

1805 - Captain Yurii Lisianski runs aground on what becomes known as Lisianski Island

1800 - Western sailing ships begin to exploit the area for seals, whales, reef fish, turtles, sharks, birds, pearl oysters, and sea cucumbers

1789 - Nihoa found by Western explores. Captain Douglas was the first European to see the island, and named it Bird Island, referring to the multitude of its inhabitants.

1786 - Captain La Perouse, the first European to sail past Necker and names it in honor of the French Minister of Finance, Jacques Necker. The French Frigate Shoals are discovered

1779 - Captain Cook's men are accompanied by a chief's canoe headed to Ka'ula Island, off the coast of Kaua'i

1700 - Hawaiians from Kaua'i and Ni'ihau make regular canoe trips to Mokupapapa, an island west of Kaula, for turtles and seabirds

1500 - Habitation of Necker and Nihoa ends;

1000 - Hawaiians settle on Nihoa

200-600 A.D. - The first Polynesian voyagers arrive in the Hawaiian Archipelago